Lesson 1

Ex.2, p.79

1. Chemistry – b:

2. Biology – d;

3. Physics – e;

4. Botany – c;

5. Geology – a.

Ex.5(b), p.80

1. Linguistics;

2. Astronomy;

3. Psychology;

4. Meteorology;

5. Biology.

Ex.7, p.80

The word science comes from the Latin “scientia,” meaning knowledge.

How do we define science? According to Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary, the definition of science is “knowledge attained through study or practice, ” or “know ledge covering general truths of the operation of general laws, esp. as obtained and tested through scientific method [and] concerned with the physical world.”

What does that really mean? Science refers to a system of acquiring knowledge. This system uses observation and experimentation to describe and explain

natural phenomena. The term science also refers to the organized body of knowledge people have gained using that system. Less formally, the word science often describes any systematic field of study or the knowledge gained from it.

What is the purpose of science? Perhaps the most general description la that the purpose of science is to produce useful models of reality.

Most scientific investigations use some form of the scientific method. You can find out more about the scientific method here.

Science as defined above is sometimes called pure science to differentiate it from applied science, which is the application of research to human needs. Kidds of science are commonly classified along two major lines:

– Natural sciences, the study of the natural world, and

– Social sciences, the systematic study of human behavior and society.

Lesson 2



1. Albert Einstein;

2. Neil Armstrong;

3. 1839;

4. Marie Curie;

5. 1926;

6. George Stephenson;

7. Enrico Fermi in 1932;

8. The Romans.

Ex.4, p.82

1. Was made:

2. Was discovered:

3. Was written;

4. Wait invented;

5. Was designed.

Lesson 3

Ех. З, р. 85

1. Moat people living in the modern world:

2. People’s lifestyle:

3. The world resources;

4. Some knowledge of the natural world:

5. improve life for many people all over the world;

6. Modern technology on our lives;

7. That we should learn new skills in order to keep us with all the latest techno logical advances.

Lesson 4

Ex.1(b), p.87

1. A; 2. A; 3. B; 4. C; 5. B; 6. A; 7. B.

1. C; 2. В; 3. B; 4. C; 5. B; 6. A.

Ex.6, p.91

Dear “English Bridge”

I’d like to tell you about ore of the most important events in the world.

A locomotive is railway vehicle that provides the motive power for a train. The word originates from the Latin loco – “from a place”, ablative of locus, “place” – Medieval Latin motivus, “causing motion”, and is a shortened form of the term locomotive engine] first used in the early 19th century to distinguish between mobile and stationary steam engines. A Locomobile is a Road locomotive called traction engine in England, which can moves by road.

A locomotive has no payload capacity of its own, and its sole purpose is to move the train along the tracks. In contrast, some trains have self-propelled payload-carrying vehicles. These are not normally considered locomotives, and may be referred to as multiple units, motor coaches or railcars. The use of these self-propelled vehicles is increasingly common for passenger trains, but rare for freight. Vehicles which provide motive power to haul an unpowered train, but are not generally considered locomotives because they have payload apace or are rarely detached from their trains, are known as power cars.

Traditionally, locomotives pull trains from the front. Increasingly common is push-pull operation, where a locomotive pulls the train in one direction and pushes It in the other, and can be controlled from a control cab at the other end of the train.

I hope that this Information will be interesting for your reader”.

With best regards, Anton Semko.

Lesson 5

Ex.5(a), p.93

1. Scientist;

2. Industry:

3. Graduated;

4. Rocket:

5. Founders;

6. Tested;

7, Developing;

8. Space:

9. Research;

10. Engineering.

Ex.6, p.94

Sir Isaac Newton, FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727 [OS: 28 December 1642 – 20 March 1727]), was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist, and theologian who is considered one of the most influential people In human history. His Philosophic Naturals Principia Mathematics published in 1687, is by itself considered to be among the most influential books in the history of science, laying the groundwork for most of classical mechanics. In this work. Newton described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion which dominated the scientific view of the physical universe for the next three centuries. Newton showed that the motions of objects on Earth and of celestial bodies are governed by the same set of natural laws by demonstrating the consistency between Kepler’s laws of planetary motion and his theory of gravitation, thus removing the last doubts about heliocentrism and advancing the scientific revolution.

In mechanics, Newton enunciated the principles of conservation of both momentum and angular momentum. In optics, he built the first practical reflecting telescope and developed a theory of colour based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light into the many colours which form the visible spectrum. He also formulated an empirical law of cooling and studied the speed of sound.

In mathematics. Newton shares the credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the development of the differential and integral calculus. He also demonstrated the generalised binomial theorem, developed the so-called “Newton’s method” for approximating the zeroes of a function, and contributed to the study of power series.

Newton remains influential to scientists, as demonstrated by a 2005 survey of scientists and the general public in Britain’s Royal Society asking who had the greater effect on the history of science. Newton or Albert Einstein. Newton was deemed to have made the greater overall contribution to science, >

Newton was also highly religious, though an unorthodox Christian, writing more on Biblical hermeneutics than the natural science he is remembered for today.

Lesson 6

Ex.1, p.95

1. An Einstein;

2. Einstein as a person:

3. His childhood;

4. A young scientist;

5. Life in Germany;

6. The atomic bomb;

7. The end of his life.

Ex.4, p.97

1. Gentle:

2. Genius;

3. Spare time;

4. Article;

5. Cause;

6. Sensation;

7. Jewish;

8. Take part.

Ex.5, p.97

1. When was Einstein born?

2. Why did people consider him strange?

3. What science did he study?

4. What did he write in 1905?

5. Where did he move?

8. Why didn’t Hitler like him?

7. When did he get the Nobel Prize?

8. Why did he move to the USA?

9. How did he feel during the Second World War?

10. What did he decide to do?

11. How did he feel when the bomb was actually dropped on Hiroshima?

12. How old was Einstein when he died?

Lessons 7-8

Ex.1, p, 98

1. F; 2. T; 3. T; 4. F; 5. T; 6. T; 7. T; 8. F.

Ex.2. p.98

1. Inventions;

2. Discoveries;

3. Invented;

4. Invented;

5. Invented;

6. Discover;

7. Invention;

8. Discovered:

9. Invention.

Ex 3. p.98

1. explore;

2. observed;

3. invented;

4. discovered;

5. discovery;

6. explored;

7. observation;

8. discovery;

9. invention;

10. invention;

11. invention;

12. discovered;

13. discovered.

Lesson 9

Ex.1, p.102

1. Physics; 2. Biology; 3. Mathematics; 4. Geology; 5. Building; 6. Astronomy; 7. Chemistry; 8. Botany; 9. Zoology; 10. Microbiology.

Ex.2, p.102

1. The first calculating machine was invented by Charles Babbage in 1812.

2. Electric current was discovered by Michael Faraday in 1825.

3. A petrol-driven car was built by Karl Benz in 1885.

4. The law of gravitation was discovered by Isaak Newton in 1665.

5. The electric light bulb was Invented by Thomas Edison in 1879,

Ex.3, p.103

1. C;

2. E;

3. G;

4. B;

5. D;

6. H;

7. F;

8. I;

9. K;

10. L;

11. J.

Ex.5.p. 104

1. E;

2. B;

3. C;

4. A;

5. F;

6. D.

Ex.4, p.108

Glasgow is the largest city in Scotland and third moat populous in the United Kingdom. The city is situated on the River Clyde in the country’s west central low lands. A person from Glasgow is known as a Glaswegian, which is also the name of the local dialect.

Glasgow grew from the medieval Bishopric of Glasgow and the later establishment of the University of Glasgow, which contributed to the Scottish Enlightenment.

From the 13th century the city became one of Europe’s main hubs of transatlantic trade with the Americas. With the Industrial Revolution, the city and surrounding region grew to become one of the world’s pre-eminent centres of engineering and shipbuilding, constructing many innovative and famous vessels. Glasgow was known as the “Second City of the British Empire” for much of the Victorian era and Edwardian period. Today it is one of Europe’s top twenty financial centres and is home to many of Scotland’s leading businesses.

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries Glasgow grew to a population of over one million, and was the fourth-largest city in Europe, after London, Paris and Berlin. In the 1960s, large-scale relocation to new towns and peripheral suburbs, followed by successive boundary changes, have reduced the current population of the City of Glasgow unitary authority urea to 580, 690, with 1, 199, 629 people living in the Greater Glasgow Urban Area. The entire region surrounding the conurbation covers approximately 2.3 million people, 41% of Scotland’s population.

Birmingham is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands county of England. Birmingham is the most populous of England’s core cities, and is the second-most populous British city, with a population of 1, 006, 500 (2006 estimate).

The City of Birmingham forms part of the larger West Midlands conurbation, which has a population of 2, 284, 093 and includes several neighbouring towns and cities, such as Solihull. Wolverhampton and the towns of the Black Country.

The city’s reputation was forged as n powerhouse of the Industrial Revolution in England, a fact which led to Birmingham being known as “the workshop of the world* or the “city of a thousand trades”. >

People from Birmingham are known as ‘Brummies’, a term derived from the city’s nickname of Brum. This comes in turn from the city’s dialect. name, Brummagem. |8| which may have been derived front one of the city’s earlier names. “Bromwicham, There is a distinctive Brummie dialect and accent, both of which differ from the adjacent Black Country.