Ex. 2 (b) c
1. in 1972 by UNESCO
2. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation.
3. natural sites, and a wide variety of cultural sites such as landscapes, towns, historic monuments and modern buildings.
4. places of international importance.
5. 851 27
6. the Tower of London, the city of Bath, Stonehenge or Scottish castles.
7. Kyiv-Pecherska Lavra and St. Sophia’s Cathedral in Kyiv, the historic centre of Lviv and the beech forest of the Carpathians.
1. A regimental museum
3. To revolt
4. To revolve
We are having a wonderful journey here in Bath! Bath is a city in the South West of England. Its population is of about 80,000. It is situated 159 km west of London. Designated as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.
Bath has a variety of theatres, museums, and other cultural and sporting venues. The city has two universities and several schools and colleges.
The weather is fantastic! Warm and dry. The sites are wonderful! You should see them! We are impressed by all of them. Going to visit the Roman baths and Thermae Bath Spa tomorrow. The main spa has two natural thermal baths, a rooftop pool and an indoor pool, a large steam room elegantly glass-partitioned into four circular zones.
We are sending you some great photos to see!
See you in a week!
Galyna & Ira
1. Kyiv, the capital of Ukraine
2. modern and medieval, the traditional and new
3. a World Heritage Site
4. hundreds of ghosts
5. its international festivals and unusual local culture
6. with arts, sports and attractions
1. What is its population?
2. Why has Edinburgh been listed as a World Heritage Site?
3. What is Scotland’s most visited attraction?
4. What famous ghosts does a city have?
5. What festivals are held every summer in Edinburgh?
I’m coming only for one day tomorrow at 8 a. m.
Thanks for the programme you have sent me.
As I am coming only for one day I’d like to go on a walking tour to The Royal Mile because it is probably Edinburgh’s oldest street. As far as I know it connects Edinburgh Castle with the Palace of Holyrood House and I heard that visitors will find a lot to explore on either side of this historic road.
1. Cliff foot
2. To flee back
4. To announce
5. From far and wide
6. To ballot
8. To rip up
9. To be recognised for
10. To stick out of
Ex. 6 (a)
Finn’s wife said, “Finn isn’t at home”.
She asked him, “Please, be quiet and don’t wake up the baby!”
1. going to the museum
2. seeing the Giant’s Causeway in Northern Ireland.
3. going sightseeing around Edinburgh.
4. waiting for a guide for some minutes.
5. beginning of our excursion.
6. admiring the view of Belfast Castle.
My Holidays in Northern Ireland
Now we are here in Northern Ireland! It is summer and we are going to stay here for 10 days.
We decided not to stay in a permanent place in a small hotel but rented a car and travelled around.
The weather is fickle and unpredictable but the rain keeps the land a magical emerald green and, when the wind blows the clouds away to sea, the sky like the mountains is blue. The air is clean – and so sweet that you will want to open the car windows to let the breezes in.
Because Northern Ireland is only 5,500 square miles in area – about the size of Yorkshire or Connecticut – you can see most of the main attractions in a week without clocking up more than 500 miles. Two major cities, the capital Belfast and Londonderry were just waiting to be explored.
First was Belfast. This beautiful Victorian city had stacks of things to do, too – we checked out where great ships like the Titanic had been built, marvelled at the architecturally impressive City Hall and Queen’s University, we immersed ourselves in Belfast’s sparkling city life with hip boutiques and smart stores.
Then comes county Londonderry. Massive 17th-century city walls and ‘singing pubs’ are famous features of Derry/Londonderry, on the River Foyle. The Tower Museum sensitively interpreted the city’s turbulent history, while the Fifth Province celebrated Irish Celtic culture. At the Foyle Valley Railway Centre we focused on the region’s former narrow – gauge network. The wild Sperrin Mountains lie south of Limavady, near which is the beautiful Roe Valley Country Park, where we visited Ulster’s first hydroelectric power station, the Power House. At Draperstown to the east, the Ulster Plantation Centre told us the story of a notorious aspect of Irish history.
Most people visiting have heard of the varying allegiances of its people. How ever, to a traveller the people of Northern Ireland are friendly and warm towards visitors. You get the feeling that the people know the allegiances of each other, but to a traveller it can be hard to ascertain. The Irish – Be they kings, or poets, or farmers, they’re a people of great worth, they keep company with the angels, and bring a bit of heaven here to earth. Leprechauns, castles, good luck and laughter. Lullabies, dreams and love ever after. Poems and songs with pipes and drums. A thousand welcomes when anyone comes… That’s the Irish for you!”
Traditional food is alive and well in Northern Ireland. Most traditional dishes have their roots in potatoes and bread, and farming families used to eat at least one Ulster Fry a day.
Nowadays that pleasure is saved for the weekend, maybe indulging in a sausage soda or a bacon bap on a week day. However, no visit to Northern Ireland would be complete without experiencing an Ulster Fry!
The Ulster Fry is distinguished by its griddle breads – soda bread and potato farls, fried until crisp and golden. Sometimes it comes with another uniquely Northern Irish speciality, vegetable roll – slices of peppery minced beef, flavoured with fresh leek, carrot and onion. Bacon, sausages, an egg, a tomato and maybe some mushrooms complete the picture – not to mention lashings of tea and toast.
Some local specialities included:
Champ – a delicious comfort food dish of potatoes mashed with lots of butter, warm milk and chopped spring onions or, as we call them, scallions. We also love our spuds fried, roast, baked and simply boiled in their “jackets” to be peeled ceremoniously at the table.
Irish Stew – a hearty casserole traditionally made with meat, potatoes, carrots and onions. The Ulster variety is made with steak pieces instead of lamb – cooked to a peppery slush and often served with thick slices of buttered bread.
Dulse – a s>
Lough Neagh eel – traditionally eaten at Hallowe’en and served fried in chunks with a white onion sauce, also often smoked and served as a starter.
Potato bread farl – a dense, earthy flat bread, made with potatoes, flour, and buttermilk and cooked on a griddle. This bread is the heart of every Ulster Fry and a must-buy foodie souvenir.
Soda bread farl – first baked in 19th century Ireland when local peasants added baking soda to help the dough rise. The result is thick, chunky soft bread with fluffy consistency that is best served fried as part of the Ulster Fry, or toasted with a big dollop of butter. They are also the base for popular Paddy’s Pizzas. Wheaten bread – a he>
Yellow man – a crunchy golden confectionery often confused with honeycomb, but similar in texture, sold at fairs and markets.
Vegetable roll – well actually its thick slices of a fatty meat from the trimmings of brisket and rib with seasoning of fresh vegetables, usually celery, leek, carrot and onion. It was traditionally part of an Ulster Fry but now more often served at lunch or dinner with mashed potato or champ, and mashed swede or turnip.
Steak & Guinness pies – Steak & Guinness pie is the pub grub of choice in most parts of Ulster. The meat is cooked first, and then a pie dish is lined with puff pastry, filled with the beef and then topped with the pastry. It differs from the UK pastry-topped pie, in that the pastry is both on top and underneath, the meat. Butchers sell a wide range of pies with fillings such as mince and onion or chicken and ham.
Ardglass potted herring – not to be confused with roll mops, this dish was created in the days when herrings were plentiful. Each family has its own secret variation, but often they are wrapped around onion, bay leaf and all-spice with a 50:50 mixture of m>
Pasties – this comforting mixture of sausage meat, onions, mashed potato is shaped like a burger, and always spiced with loads and loads of black pepper. You can order them plain, battered (the chip shop favourite) or coated with golden breadcrumbs.
Boxty – predominately found in County Fermanagh, Boxty is a weighty, starchy potato cake made with 50:50 mix of cooked mashed potatoes and grated, strained, raw potato. The most common variety is boiled boxty, also known as hurley, a large round loaf which is boiled whole for several hours, allowed to rest and then sliced and fried, often with bacon. Buttermilk – a by-product of churning butter on the farm, buttermilk is responsible for the distinctive flavour and texture of Northern Irish breads – soda farls, potato bread, pancakes and wheaten bread.
These were great summer holidays, the best we have ever had!
1. to marvel
2. to amaze
3. to fight
4. to construct, to erect
5. astonishing, fantastic, incredible, marvellous, miraculous, unbelievable, wonderful
Big Ben is one of the most famous landmarks in the world. The clock tower situated on the banks of the river Thames epitomises the culture and architectural style of London and has tolled out the hours before the news on BBC radio since 1923. Officially Big Ben is only the name of the biggest of the five bells in the clock tower also known as St Stephen’s Tower. The 13. 8 ton bell was cast at Whitechapel Bell Foundry in 1858 and is said to have been pulled to the site by 16 horses. It was installed in 1859, but did not start ringing until 1862 because of a crack.
What is most impressive about the clock is its size. The tower itself is 96. 3m/316ft high. There are 4 clock faces, which have a diameter of 7. 5 m each. The minute hands are made of copper and are 4. 3 m long.
When either the House of Commons or the House of Lords is sitting after dark the Ayrton Light at the top of St. Stephen’s tower is lit. The Ayrton light was named after Thomas Ayrton who was the first Commisioner of Works who installed a lamp in the tower soon after it was built. Tower Bridge
Tower Bridge speaks for itself. It is one of the most remarkable landmarks in London. It was completed as late as 1894 and is in fact one of the youngest road bridges in London. It is built in a posh Victorian style and the engineering was widely celebrated especially at the time when it was built. The bridge has two towers, which are connected with their own bridge. Today the bridge is only opened if very large ships are to enter into the upper pool of the Thames or if special events are to be celebrated. It is possible to get a tour within the towers where the original Victorian engine rooms can be seen.
Tower of London
Tower of London is London’s and maybe United Kingdom’s most famous castle. The reason being it’s bloody history and the fact that it is the best surviving medieval castle. Tower of London was the execution place of 8 people among others Henry VIII’8 second wife, Anne Boleyn and Henry VIII’s fifth wife Catherine Howard. Tower was also a prison and the prisoners were brought to the Tower by boat through Traitor’s Gate. The construction of the Tower was begun in 1078 by William the Conqueror, and was gradually enlarged. Since 1660 the Crown Jewels have been on display in the Tower of London. If you go there you should definitely see the 317-carat Second Star of Africa diamond. Tower is also famous for the Yeoman Warders or Beefeaters, which are guardians for the Tower of London. They are dressed in colourful uniforms.
Dear Leila and Trent,
Thanks again for having us last 2 weeks. We always have such a wonderful time with you. We’re still talking about what fun we had last weekend. It’s always great to see you all, and inviting us to stay over made the fun last that much longer. We enjoyed everything, from dinner to breakfast and everything in between! And all the food was delicious of course. You two are truly impressive cooks! We are still talking about that delicious shrimp, and the cake looked like something out of a magazine. I can’t wait to try making that risotto myself but I think it will need that Jenna touch.
We so appreciate the hospitality. Anytime you are out our way, please don’t hesitate to stop in and stay awhile!
Thank you again for your hospitality.
Jenna and Helen
Durham Castle and Cathedral Brief Description
Durham Cattle and Cathedral, seated high on a peninsula overlooking the River Wear, have been the first sight to greet visitors to this historic city for hundreds of years and were jointly designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1986. Construction on the castle began in 1072, Just after the Norman Conquest, under the orders of William the Conqueror, and it is a typical example of a motte and bailey fortification. It was initially used to control the rebellious Saxons who populated northern England. From the 11th century onwards it was used as the seat of power of the Prince Bishops appointed by the British Crown to rule the Palatinate of Durham, the remote area of northern England vulnerable to attack from the Scots. In 1837, the last Prince Bishop, Bishop Van Mildert, helped found the Unlvertity of Durham and donated the castle as its first home. It still houses students of Unlvertity College, the oldest of the 14 university colleges, who live in the keep and dine in the wood-panelled Great Hall, containing portraits of the Prince Bishops. Across the lawned area, known as Palace Green, stands the Cathedral Church of Chritt and Bletted Mary the Virgin, the best example of Norman-style architecture in England. It was built between 1093 and 1274, originally to house the relics of St Cuthbert, the Northumbrian evangelist who died in AD 687. Also interred in the cathedral is the Venerable Bede, who died in AD 735. Bede’s Work, “The Eccletiattical History of the Englith People” is considered to be the first ever history of England. The cathedral’s nave is one of the most complete examples of Romanesque architecture in Europe. At 61m (200ft) long and 22m (72ft) high, it features two rows of huge cylindrical and compound pillars supporting rounded arches. The twin Wett Towers overlook the River Wear and Prebends Bridge, which bears an inscription of a poem by W>
1. Scotland (Glasgow)
2. port. Capital of Culture (Liverpool)
3. Great Britain, London Eye, Big Ben, Trafalgar Square (London)
5. the south, famous for a drive (Brighton)
6. Scotland (Edinburgh)